The School Physics website also provides details of a similar experiment (see 'The oil drop experiment').The Physbot site has some nice detail about calculating the atomic radius (see 'Nuclear physics').The University of Georgia has a simple factual summary on its Hyperphysics site (see 'Radioactive half-life').   The s-cool site is a more straightforward explanation with less detail (see 'Activity and the decay constant').

Approaches to teaching the content This theme introduces student to the study of nuclear and particle physics.

The Rayleigh Oil Drop experiment detailed by the Institute of Physics provides a neat way of illustrating just how small the distances being measured are.

Whilst also reinforcing some of the numerical skills form the AS course (see 'Estimating the size of a molecule using oil').

The cyberphysics website has some interesting question on the topic (see 'A Level: Radioactivity questions').

Learner resource 2 gets students to plot the curve and mark on the three common types of decay.

There are a variety of introductions and particle physics summaries.

This one on Physics Net provides a good overall summary (see 'Particle interactions').

The schoolphysics site has a good treatment of logarithmic graphs (see 'Mathematical consideration of radioactive decay').

Antoine Education has quite a detail section on nuclear decay (see 'Exponential law of decay').

carbon-dating.6.4.4 Nuclear fission and fusion(a) Einstein’s mass–energy equation; \(\displaystyle \Delta E = \Delta mc^2\)(b) energy released (or absorbed) in simple nuclear reactions(c) creation and annihilation of particle–antiparticle pairs(d) mass defect; binding energy; binding energy per nucleon(e) binding energy per nucleon against nucleon number curve; energy changes in reactions(f) binding energy of nuclei using \(\displaystyle \Delta E = \Delta mc^2\) and masses of nuclei(g) induced nuclear fission; chain reaction(h) basic structure of a fission reactor; components – fuel rods, control rods and moderator(i) environmental impact of nuclear waste(j) nuclear fusion; fusion reactions and temperature(k) balancing nuclear transformation equations.

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