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1922-29), Captures (1923), International Thought (1923), Memoiable Days (1924), On Expression (1924), Abracadabra and Other Satires (1924), The Forest (1924), Old English (1924), Is England Done For’’ (1925), The Show (1925), Escape (1926), Verses New and Old (1926), A Talk on Playing the Game with Animals and Birds (1926), The Way to Pre- pare Peace (1927), Castles in Spain and Other Screeds (1927), Mr G’s Appeal for the Miners (1928), Exiled (1929), The Roof (1929), A Rambling Discourse (1929), On Forsyte Change (1930), Two Essays on Conrad (1930), The Creation of Character m Literature (1931), Literature and Life (1931), Candel- abra (1932), Autobiographical Letters of J.

G ■ A Correspondence with Frank Harris 0933), Author and Critic (1933), Letters from JG 1900-1932 (Garnett, C, ed, 1934), The Win- ter Garden (1935), Forsyte, Pendycars and Others (1935), Selected Short Stories (1935), Glimpses and Reflections (1937) BIBLIOGRAPHY.

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Gullberg Hemnch Stammler Gunnarsson Hallstrom Gumilev Hansson Klyuyev Hedberg Johnson, E Kamban Emil Stampar Krleza Lagerkvist Matos Lagerlof Nazor Frank K. OAS Photos, Washington, D C Antony Di Gesii and Houghton Miffim Company, Boston Frederick A Praeger, Inc., N Y Suddeutscher Verlag, Munich The New York Times, N. Paul De Vnes-Pix, N Y Wilfried Gopel, Berlin Verlag Ullstem, Berlin Fritz Eschen, Berlm Editta Sherman and Doubleday & Company, Inc , N Y French Cultural Services, N Y. Horst Tappe and Camera Press-Pix The Bettmann Archive, N. worked as a lumberjack after Germany s “Uapje^a d S^ally became a drawing teacher at the Rent linger Gymnasium Politically an inner ?

Stanzel Martinson Moberg Aldo Tagliaferri Novel Moreas Franz Stanzel Helga Thomas Garnett Hartog Harry Steinhauer Langgasser Kolb R. Townsend Earle E Stevens Galsworthy Golding Otto Turecek Josef Strelka Hostovsky Nezval Kastner, Erich Liliencron Fredenck Ungar Gleb Struve Kraus Gerd Tan Bebber Kaverin Morris Leonov Stanley Stuart John Van Eerde Malaparte Mc Ciillers Vilho Suomi Kilpi Fernand Vial Montherlant Alonso Zamora Vicente Joseph H Summers Grau Delgado Maragall i Gorina Muir Marquma XIV CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 2 John B. he Xr wha heart-stricken Last Squaffion- „- knowing itself ^ j dignity m its theless maintains decen y a d ^ desperate ^duation In Eme SPm ,„50) a ratumns baja- devastated and its javine the founda- rupt.

HUGH HOLMAN Professor of English and Provost University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill AMERICAN LITERATURE JOSEPH JONES Professor of English University of Texas COMMONWEALTH LITERATURE EMILE SNYDER Associate Professor of French and of African Studies University of Wisconsin, Madison AFRICAN LITERATURE WILLIAM YORK TINDALL Professor of English Columbia University ENGLISH LITERATURE RICHARD VOWLES Professor of Comparative Literature and of Scandinavian Studies University of Wisconsin, Madison SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURES THEODORE ZIOLKOWSKI Professor of German Princeton University GERMAN LITERATURE General Adviser and Technical Consultant ALEX PREMINGER Editor Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics V Contributors to Volume 2 Fnednch Abendroth Herzmanovsky-Orhndo Claude K. Posin Gladkov Nick Aaron Ford Hughes, L Emil Frederiksen Hansen Jorgensen Knudsen Michaehs, K. Munk Herbert Frenzel Meyrmk Montale Melvin J Friedman Irish Literature James Erhard Friedrichsmeyer Grass Johnson, U Gerhard Fritsch Koeppen Kramer Josef Fuchs Miegel Albert S. Oscar Jancke Hesse Horst Jarka Lewis, A Bruce Johnson Green, H. Johnston Gascoyne Joseph Jones Hew Zealand Literature Brigitte Kahr Lott Andree Kail Gary Carl Keilhau Grieg Hamsun Heiberg Hugh Kenner Joyce Elizabeth M.

Abraham Marcel Ralph M Aderman Mencken Douglas Alden Lacretelle Fernando Alegria Icaza, J. Gerard Hausa Literature Malagasy Literature Helmut E. Bernard Gicovate Lugones UInch K Goldsmith Kommerell Sheldon Norman Grebstem Lewis, S. Murdoch Johannes Holthusen Jastrwi Kuzmin Lyric Poetry Russia Alfred Holzinger lunger, F Andre Honore Giraudoux Eberhard Horst Kolmar Johannes Hosle Gadda Virgil lerunca Goga lorga Istrati Minulescu Noailles George Ivask Ivanov, G. Kerr Interior Monologue Paul Ilie James Lilyan Kesteloot-Lagneau and Emile Snyder Neo-African Literature Astnd Ivask Latvian Literature Kay H Kim Korean Literature X CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 2 Fntz Knoller Gaiser Heinnch Kramer Hjorto Magnus Jan Krynski Htasko Helmut Kuhn Lewis, C.

Miro xiii Georg Specht CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 2 Jons Taels Mann, H. Bildarchiv Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau Horst Tappe and Pix, Inc , N Y Kay Bell and Little, Brown and Company, Boston Bertil Dahlgren and Camera Press-Pix, Inc , N Y ENCYCLOPEDIA OF WORLD LITERATURE in the 20th Century G GADDA GADD A, Carlo Emilio Italian novelist, b , Mila G volunteered for military service in World War I and m 1918 was a prisoner of war in Germany From 1920 to 1935 he worked as an engineer in various countries, including the Argentine, France, and Germany G’s literary work is marked by avoidance of emotionalism and rhetoric, his feelings are veiled by a caustic irony His metaphors, often taken from the field of technology, counterbalance the spontaneity of his pw ceptions Even in his first vast work, e novel La Madonna dei filosofi (1931), G was already mercilessly analyzing the daily lives ot his characters, while avoiding all facile effects He enriched his vocabulary by drawing upon colloquial and dialect forms The war novel II castello di Udine (1934) presents a proto- type of the masculine attitude toward the in evitable The virtuosity of his humorous sketches of Milan collected in L’Adalgisa (1944) recalls baroque forms Here G an impressive familiarity with all nelas o knowledge ^^Qcn\ G ’s Novelle dal ducato m fiamme received a literary award In his novel ync pas Ucciaccio brutto di via Meriilana 1 ’ That Awful Mess on the Via Merulana, G produced a panoramic picture of fascist Italy It reveals a virtuosity nurtured on e Milanese scapigliatiira (bohemianism), tne Spanish baroque, and Jean Paul (1763-182 ) FURTHER WORKS Gagliardi (1932).^ meravighe d’ltalia (1939), Gli anni (1943), primo libro delle favole (1952), Giornale i giierra e di prigionia (1955), I sogni e gore (1955), / viaggi la morte (1958), Verso GAISER la Certosa (1961), La cognizione del dolore 0963 Acqu Lnted with Grief, 1969), / racconti Z^pi Znti giudiziosi, 1924-58 (1963) / Luigi di Fiancia (1964), II guerriero (1967) bibliography F“sio, M , “L’o^vre de G ” m Critique (Pans), XIX (1963), 21 3^ on That Awful Mess on the Via The New York Times (), p 5, Nation (), p 306 JOHANNES HOSLE and a,. b 15 Sept 1908, Oberriexingen, Enz Valley G a descendant of Swabian pastors, left the theological seminary in Urach to become ?

Gijsen Mark Spilka Gilliams Gu Snundsson Lawrence, D H. painter He traveled m Spam, served as an L officer during World War I.

Vickery Graves Robert B Voitle Nm Werner Vordtriede Macaulay Ernst Waldmger Herrmami-Neisse Florence L Walzl Nash Howard W. Lardner Harvey Curtis Webster Hartley Irwin Weil Gorki Kurt Weinberg Gourmont Huysmans Jacob Jarry Lyric Poetry France Mirbeau Rene Wellek Literary Criticism John C Weston Maccaig Mac Diarmid Franz Weyergans Gheon Giono Kenneth S White Lenormand Neveiix Per Wieselgren Heidenstam Paul Wimmer Ghelderode Guareschi Kokoschka Kubin Kurz Mansfield Meerscli Mell Neumann Johanna Wolf Machar Medek Fnednch W Wollenberg Much, R Kastner, Erliart Gunther Wytrzens Halas Holecek Hora Ivanov, V V Khodasevich Peter Yershov Klychkov Kuprin Theodore Ziolkowski German Literature Leon M. Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Mam Th Rummy, Oberstdorf-Reute Mondadori Press, Milan French Cultural Services, N. sets an “amp^ integrity The geological GALCZYNSKI GALLEGOS man, representing a higher level of creation, holds his own amid the ceaseless conflict of the elements G ’s novel Scliluftball (1958, The Final Ball, 1960) depicts the activity of a small town from the widely differing view- points of the various characters.

Zolbrod Ishikawa Japanese Literature XV Abbreviations for Periodicals, Volume 2 AALIAM Arcadia, Accademia Letterana Dram S Drama Survey (Minneapolis) Italiana Attie Memone DRs Deutsche Rundschau AL American Literature DS Danske Studier APh Acta Philologica (Roma Dub R Dublin Review (London) Societas Academica Dacoromana) DVLG Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift AQ American Quarterly fur Literaturwissenschaft Ar L Ar Q Archivum Lmguisticum Anzona Quarterly und Geistesgeschichte AUC Anales de la Umversidad de Chile EA EG Ltudes Anglaises Etudes Germaniques BA Books Abroad EIC Essays in Cnticism (Oxford) BB Bulletin of Bibliography EJ English Journal BHS Bulletin of Hispanic Studies Fd L FH Forum der Letteren Frankfurter Hefte Cath W Catholic World FL Figaro Litteraire CCa Civilt^ Cattohca FLe Fiera Letterana CE College Enghsh FR French Review CHA Cuademos Hispanoamencanos (Madnd) FS French Studies Ch C Chinese Culture Ga R Georgia Review Chi R Chicago Review Gids De Gids CL Comparative Literature GL&L German Life and Letters CLAJ College Language Association GQ German Quarterly Journal (Morgan State Coll , GR Germanic Review Baltimore) GRM Germanisch-romanische CMLR Canadian Modern Language Review Monatsschrift, Neue Folge CPe Castrum Peregrini HSS Harvard Slavic Studies Cnt Cntique. Consulate General of Finland, N Y The Bettmann Archive, N Y. Verlag Otto Muller, Salzburg Royal Danish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Copenhagen Bildarchiv Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau Verlag Ullstem, Berlin Pantheon Books, Inc , N. Kathe Augenstem, Bonn Charles Scribner’s Sons, N Y. This kaleido- scopic picture symbolizes the soulless, techni- cally advanced world laid bare by G , the champion of a true life G ’s volumes of novellas, Zwischenland (1949) and Emmal und ofi (1956), make it poignantly clear that man is at the mercy of the higher powers of fate and of omnipresent death Smhanische Notizen (1959) fuses myth and man to produce a portrait of the ancient Mediterranean land of Sicily.

End of the Chapter (Maid in Waiting, 1931, Flowering Wilderness, 1932, Over the River [Am , One More River], 1933) Al- though G refused a knighthood in 1918 for his literary achievements, he accepted the Order of Merit in 1929 and the Nobel Prize for Literature m 1932 Of his non-Forsyte wntings Fraternity (1909) is one of his finest novels, and of his plays Strife (produced 1909), Justice (produced 1910), and Loyalties (produced 1922), are three of his most compelling By the 1920’s G had the reputation of a literary giant, but much of his fame rested on the mistaken belief that he was a sociological writer whose satiric analyses of man and society were photographically lifelike Al- though this belief still prevails, present-day critical evaluation of his work poses a very different viewpoint since the society he chron- icled and the causes he espoused are now past history, G is dismissed as an out-of-date social historian However, if the emphasis on the sociological aspect of his writings is a mis- taken one, it IS evident that G ’s work should be examined anew and on its own terms as literature G ’s achievement is clearly greater than his present reputation would allow, in- deed, he may justly be considered the last great Victorian novelist An important statement of G ’s artistic creed is “A Novelist’s Allegory” (1909) The allegory tells of an old man, Cethru, who as a nightwatchman aids passers-by as they traverse dark streets Because the light from his lantern shone on some unpleasant scenes, Cethru is accused of crmiinal intent In his defense the point is made that the lantern im- partially reveals both good and evil and shows the true proportion of things to one another In G’s view the artist is important because he is the discoverer of truth or spin- tual proportion Beauty and art (profound em- bodiments of the spiritual, the humane, and the civilizing) are the cornerstones of his humanitarianism G thought the phrase “spiritual realist” fairly accurately character- ized his work, and although he used immediate and specific details to give his writings the solidity of reality, his ultnnate concern was to evoke spiritual reality and human insight FURTHER WORKS From the Four Winds (1897).

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