Egypt dating culture

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In trade and commerce, the Mamlūk period marks the zenith of medieval Egyptian economic history.

During the 13th and 14th centuries (as long, that is, as the sultanate was able to maintain order in Egypt), trade was heavy with Mediterranean and Black sea ports and with India.

By the time of the Mamlūks, the Arabization of Egypt must have been almost complete.

Arabic had been the language of the bureaucracy since the early 8th century and the language of religion and culture even longer.

The Oriental trade was controlled largely by a group of Muslim merchants known as the Kārimīs; the Mediterranean trade was left to European traders, whom the Mamlūks allowed certain privileges in Alexandria.

By the 15th century, however, Egypt’s commercial importance rapidly deteriorated as the result of population losses caused by the plague, increased government interference in commerce, Bedouin raiding, and Portuguese competition in the Indian trade.

On several occasions popular resentment against the Copts’ conspicuous wealth and their employment in the government was manifested in public demonstrations.

Both Muslims and Christians resorted to arson, burning the others’ sanctuaries to express their hatred.

Even the Crusades apparently failed to upset the delicate balance between Muslims and Christians.

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