whs dating who - Dating antique hand bells

The collar used to hold the bell is traditionally made with leather and wood fibers.

Plating causes the sheet metal to have a surface which can be decorated or left plain.

The craftsmanship of cow bells varies by geographic location and culture.

By becoming familiar with the dozen or so main variations of the Wedgwood mark and by knowing when each was in use, a collector can determine an approximate period of production of an object.

A guide to trademarks is listed here and by careful study most collectors can acquire a reasonably sound knowledge.

Some cultures have even developed names to differentiate between bells and their tones; for example, in Spanish "truco" refers to stud males, "esquila" to female goats or ewes, and "esquileta" for pregnant females and immature animals.

Each of these bells possess unique sounds, shapes, and sizes.

Though the bells for shepherding were expanded from the fertile crescent to Celtic, Carthaginian, Greek and Roman cultures, in Europe the earliest written evidence of bells used for livestock dates to the late 14th to early 15th century. "Kuhschelle" points to a 1410 mention in a Frankfurt archive; the OED lists 1440 as the earliest attestation of a bell-wether, the leading sheep of a flock, on whose neck a bell is hung.

The OED also attributes the phrase "to bear the bell" in the sense "to take the first place" as originally referring to the leading cow or sheep of a drove or flock to Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde, 1374.

Although they are typically referred to as "cow bells" due to their extensive use with cattle, the bells are used on a wide variety of animals.

The bell and clapper are commonly crafted from iron, bronze, brass, copper, or wood.

The first inkwells were probably just fist-sized stones with depressions in them, offering scribes a natural container in which to mix powdered pigments with various types of solvents for their quills and other primitive dipping pens.

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